THE SHROUD IMAGE AND RADIATION
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Part 1:
Energy, Relativity, Radiation Release
INTRODUCTION
It is now necessary to turn to physics in the continuing
investigation of the mystery of how the image on the Holy Shroud of Turin
originated. This is because it is
scientifically well established that the image resides in a chemical alteration
of the linen fibrils of the Shroud, and that this chemical alteration was
probably caused by some form of radiation. But, radiation necessarily involves
energy, and so we must investigate the amount of energy needed to form the
image, and then its nature and source. As we shall see, a new theory of the
compressibility of energy flows offers a promising solution to the source of
the image forming radiation.
HOW MUCH ENERGY IS NEEDED TO
EXPLAIN THE IMAGE FORMATION ON THE SHROUD?
A fundamental requirement of any
consistent theory of image formation will have to be a consistent energy
balance. The minimum energy required to form an image on the Shroud can be estimated
as follows: First, it is known that the
image, although not a scorch, is similar to that which can be produced on linen
by a slight thermal scorch [Pellicori, 1]. And so the chemical energy for any process
which produces a similar image should be roughly equal to the scorch energy,
which is readily calculable [Power, 2].
Eventually, of course, the precise (non-scorch) process of image formation
needs to be established, but one can at least establish a preliminary general
level of the energy needed to form the image by calculating the energy as
though it were a scorch process.
The energy needed to scorch a given weight
of linen can be calculated from the following heat equation:
Q = m ΔT c_{p
}(1)
Where, m is the mass of linen scorched, ΔT is the
temperature rise required to reach the scorch temperature of linen which is
around 200ºC ( i.e. ΔT = 200 - 15 = 185ºC), c_{p} is the specific
heat of cellulose ( 0.34 calories per gram per degree C temperature rise; when
Q the heat energy is expressed in Joules this is 0.34 x 4.186 = 1.423 Joules of
heat energy per gram of linen scorched per degree temperature rise).
The mass m of linen scorched must be estimated. We know
that the image is superficial and resides only on the crowns of the linen
threads and moreover only on the outermost fibrils in each thread. There are
from 80 to 100 fibrils in each thread. We therefore estimate that the mass of
linen scorched lies roughly in the range of 1 to 50 grams. Based on this mass estimate we can calculate
the heat energy Q needed to chemically discolor the cellulose of the linen and
form the image as follows:
Estimated Mass (m) of Image Fibrils Scorched (grams) |
Heat Energy
(Q) for Scorching (Joules) |
1 |
286 |
10 |
2.86x10^{3} |
20 |
5.72x10^{3} |
40 |
1.14x10^{4} |
50 |
1.43x10^{4} |
The first thing to note is that these energies
for image formation are actually small. Consequently, our image process can be
quite tranquil or weak. It certainly need not be violent. Nuclear or atomic disintegrations, which have
sometimes been suggested as being involved, can now be ruled out on energy
considerations, as well on the obvious physical integrity of the linen itself,
since it bears no signs of any violent image formation process.
It must be emphasized that these energy
estimates represent only the minimum energies needed to form the image by
bringing the temperature of the linen up from room temperature ( 15ºC) to
scorch temperature of 200ºC. This is because one can envisage that the energy
emitted in some unknown process might exceed this minimum amount required for a
scorch, but that the excess might then simply pass through the linen without
further affecting it. So, with this in
mind, we can interpret the heat energy estimates as the minimum amounts needed
and not the actual amounts that might
be, say, emitted, by the Body of the Man in the Shroud, in some physical
transformation to be investigated later.
We
conclude then that the minimum energy involved in forming the image on the
Shroud probably lies in the range of 286 to 10,000 joules.
THE
NATURE OF ENERGY
The name energy is derived from the
Greek energeia, meaning ‘relating to work’ or ‘relating to activity’ [
Gk. energes from en-on + ergon- work].
The precise scientific concept of energy in science emerged
only quite late in the 19^{th} century. Energy is still today a somewhat subtle concept. This is probably
due to the fact that it emerges from the mechanics of motion, not as a directly
observable entity, but only as a calculated quantity [½ mV^{2}] which
is conserved or unchanged in
magnitude during physical motions (V).
The concept of energy is so basic that the law of conservation of energy is probably the most fundamental law
of science.
The kind of energy associated with the movement of material
bodies is called kinetic energy
[1/2mV^{2}].
A second kind or category of energy is potential energy (U) . This
is stored energy, as in a coiled spring, or an energy of position, such as the
stored gravitational energy of a body elevated above the earth’s surface.
Potential or stored energy may be released and become kinetic energy of motion
(1/2mV^{2}), for example, if a suspended body is released and allowed
to fall.
In wave motion, if c is the speed of the wave, then (m) c^{2} is its kinetic wave energy, with unit mass assumed so
that m does not appear specifically in the equation. In a complete treatment of
the subject, other kinds of energy such as electrostatic and electromagnetic
energies, gravitational energy, chemical energy, surface free energy and so on,
must be included, but in our present approach the mechanical energy will
suffice.
Since energy
is always conserved in any physical change, it is obviously a very powerful
scientific concept. As so it is a curious fact that mechanics can actually be
formulated (in terms of Newtonian force and momentum) without ever bringing the
concept of energy in at all. However,
alternatively, it is also possible to formulate mechanics entirely from the
concept of energy, and this approach, the Hamiltonian formulation, results in
the most general and powerful formulation of the science of mechanics. It is
little wonder that energy appears as a fundamental but still subtle concept [Lindsay and Margenau, 3].
This has led the philosopher Lonergan [4] to ask whether energy may be related to the philosophical
concept of prime potency, the ancient
and enduring philosophical principle proposed by Aristotle and other Greek
philosophers as being the underlying entity constituting or ‘informing’ all
physical matter, but which never appears or exists by itself or per se.
Clearly, energy is a very basic concept,
and its conservative property permits us to approach the problem of the image
formation on the Shroud on a fundamental and quantitative basis.
COMPRESSIBLE
ENERGY FLOW AND THE IMAGE FORMATION ON THE HOLY SHROUD; Variable
Speed
of Light (VSL) Theories
Since the amount of radiation energy that
we have calculated above as needed to form the observed image on the Shroud is
so small, we obviously need a physical mechanism to account for this. As we
shall show later, the mechanism of compressible
energy flows gives us a concrete, testable explanation for the weak radiant energy release required to form the image observed on the
Holy Shroud of Turin.
Compressible
energy flow theory, is an application of well
established, standard gas dynamics, aerodynamics, and atmospheric science
theory [5,6], and is therefore based on a century of scientific and engineering results.
In addition, because the compressible
energy flow equation contains a parameter (n)
which represents the number of ways the energy of the system is divided, and
which can have either positive or negative integral values, the theory
introduces the possibility of a binary
universe in which transformations of matter can take place involving
release of radiant energy. This is the key to its potential ability to account
for a release of the weak radiation from the dead body of The Man in the Shroud
needed to form the image on the linen cloth.
Since compressibility of energy flow involves
changes or transformations in physical matter such as atoms and electrons, it
also has cosmological and astronomical
implications which may go far towards solving some of the central and most
vexing scientific problems in physics, astrophysics and cosmology today, since
it offers unique explanations for the so-called dark matter and dark energy of
the universe, the mysterious physical entities which are known to constitute
96% of the physical universe, but as to whose physical nature, standard models
of physics at the present time have no
explanation. It also provides a physically-based explanation for a
hypothetical, enormous initial expansion of the cosmos called inflation
which has been postulated in order to explain the observed uniformity of the
universe.
Several recent approaches towards solving
these major problems in physics and astrophysics have involved an abandonment of the current fixed value for
the speed of light c in space ( 3 x
10^{8} m/s) required by Einstein’s theory of relativity. Such theories are called Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSL). Currently, most of these
proposals are still in the stage of ad
hoc speculation (Moffat, Magueijo,
Barrow, Youm,7,8,9,10).
But compressible
energy flow is different (Power,
11,12,13,14,15,16,17) since it
introduces a variable speed of light as a physically based
requirement from the outset, and moreover the variability in light speed
is already experimentally verified, as we shall see. The standard, steady
flow, compressible energy equation is [2,3]:
E_{c} = c^{2} = c_{o}^{2}
- V^{2}/n
(1)
or, expressed in words: (wave energy c^{2}
at any moment ) = ( maximum wave
energy c_{o}^{2} before any
flow) minus ( a portion of the kinetic energy of flow,
V^{2}/n)
Note: We should point out here that in
compressible flow theory the mass m involved is assumed to be unity (m = 1) so
that the mass doesn’t need to appear explicitly
in the equations. If the mass
were to be made explicit then the compressible energy equation would be written
as
E _{c} = (m)c^{2} = (m)c_{o}^{2}
– (m)V^{2}/n
In the equation, c is the variable compressive wave speed in a fluid , c_{o} is the usual constant,
or static wave speed of the fluid in the
absence of any relative flow V, and n has values 1,2,3….. Here n specifies the number of ways the
energy of the compressible flow is divided. In a material gas, such as air, for
example, n is equal to 5 (three
space motions for the air molecules in the x, y, and z directions, plus one each
for the molecular rotation and vibration motions, making a total of 5). In air
the static wave speed c_{o}, is the speed of sound, which at sea level
is about 330 m/s ( 1080 feet per second).
The compressible energy flow equation may
of course also be expressed in graphical form.
If the energies are plotted directly , that is as c^{2 } and^{ } V^{2 },^{ }we have a set of straight line graphs
of different slopes depending on which
value for n is assigned ( n = 1,2,3,4, etc.).
If the velocities V and c are plotted instead, we have either an
elliptical set of curves for positive n or a hyperbolic set of curves for
negative values of n.
c^{2}
= c_{o}^{2} - V^{2}/n
( ±n)
In standard meteorological and
aeronautical practice n is usually taken as having the value 5 (i.e. the value
of n for air is 5). But in general, in other fluid flow cases, n can have a
wide range of values, and moreover it can be either positive or negative, and
so this gives rise to two theoretical physical states. Hence, the possibility also arises that our
universe is Binary.
The
rather extraordinary cosmological properties of the two families of solutions
of the compressible energy equation will be explored later in this discussion.
As pointed out above, the transformation from World A matter to World B matter,
if it were to take place, would involve the
release of small amounts of
energy, and such a transformation of matter
is a prime candidate for the source of the small amount of radiation
which could have formed the image on the Shroud.
COMPRESSIBLE
ENERGY FLOW AND RELATIVITY
The compressible flow velocity V in
Equation 1 is specified as being relative
flow. One might suspect therefore that compressible flow has something to say
about the famous theory of relativity,
and this is indeed so. For example, if
we were to show the mass m explicitly in Eqn. 1, we would have
(m)c^{2}
= (m)c_{o}^{2} - (m) V^{2}/n
or
E = (m)c^{2}
= (m)c_{o}^{2} – (m) V^{2}/n
which has the form of the familiar special
relativity mass/energy relationship (E = mc^{2}) but
now with a variable wave
speed c and the addition of a kinetic
energy term mV^{2} , and
all now
derived on purely physical grounds.
This problem with light arose very soon after the
nature of light as an electromagnetic wave was discovered in the late
nineteenth century. The addition of the speed of light c to the velocity V of a light measuring instrument, for
example, an interferometer mounted on the earth which is moving through space
at V = 30 km/s around the sun, was soon found to be a big problem. Compressible
flow was then not at all well understood, and so the addition of velocities was
attempted using only the classical or so-called ‘Galilean’ method which is the
direct addition and subtraction of V and c [
i.e. V +c) and (V- c)].
How this attempt failed, and how the solution embodied
in Einstein’s special relativity theory
came to gradually be adopted, and the revisions to it now indicated as
necessary by the new compressible energy flow approach are too detailed to present
here. Instead a new Website has been
opened for a detailed scientific presentation of the theory at ( www.energycompressibility.info
). See also Note 18. below.
In any case, our main aim here is applying the new
compressible energy theory to the problem of how radiation may have formed the image on the Shroud.
RELEASE OF RADIATION IN WORLD
A → WORLD B TRANSFORMATIONS OF MATTER
Returning now to the problem of the nature and source of the weak
radiation which could have formed the observed image on the Shroud, we note
that in the basic compressible energy flow equation the parameter n ( which
gives the number of different ways the
energy of the system is split up) can
have two values, either positive or
negative, for example + 1 or -1, + 9 or
-9, and so on.
.
Each
value then describes an entirely different form of matter
^{2} = c_{o}^{2}
- V^{2}/n ( ±n)
1. The Hidden Mass or ‘Dark Matter’ of the Universe: a New
Solution
Currently, the observed astronomical motions of
certain structures of the universe, such as spiral galaxies, can be explained
by Newton’s laws of motion only with the assumption that there is present in
and around the structures additional ‘hidden’, optically and
electromagnetically unobservable, ‘ dark matter’ amounting to from 90% to as
much as 99% of the total mass. The
optically and electromagnetically observed mass, therefore, constitutes only
from 10% to as little as 1% of the total mass required to explain the
motions. The existence and nature of
this dark matter is a central problem of cosmology today.
In all known material gases n is a
positive integer, but the possibility of it being alternatively a negative
number, either integral or fractional,
raises the possibility of a binary, evolving universe encompassing both
our ordinary, condensed energy matter and the astronomical ‘dark matter’.
The evolution of our cosmos might then be considered
as (1) a World A with all +n matter, (2)
gradually transforming into a binary world of mixed A (+n)
matter and B ( -n) matter ( i.e. our
ordinary optically observable matter
plus some rarefied negative n or ‘dark
matter’) all evolving towards (3) a
final Unitary World B in which all
matter has been transformed into rarefied or celeston matter.
2. Radiation released in
an A to B transformation and the problem of the Shroud’s image formation
The energy change ΔE in the transformation A →
B is given from the energy equations
ΔE = c_{B}^{2} - c_{A}^{2}
= V^{2 }[1/n_{A} - 1/n_{B}]
Since n_{A} is positive and n_{B} is
negative, energy must be evolved in the A → B transformations.
This
is our proposed source of the relatively weak energy needed to form the Shroud
image. It will be further explored in the future updates to to this page of the
Website.
REFERENCES
1. S.F. Pellicori, Spectral Properties of the Shroud of Turin, J. Applied Optics. 19, 12, p 1913, June 15, 1980.
2. Power, Bernard A., Shock Waves in a
Photon Gas. Contr. Paper No. 203,
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Ann. Meeting, Toronto,
Jan. 1981.
-----------------NASA Requested Proposal: Control No. K-
2453; Date:, 03-31-80. Implications of a
Photon Shock Wave Effect for the Fizeau Experiment on the Velocity of Light in
a Moving Medium.
3. R.B. Lindsay and H. Margenau, Foundations
of Physics. Dover reprint. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1957.
4. Bernard J.F. Lonergan, Insight: A Study of Human Understanding. Philosophical
Library, New York, 1957.
5. A. H. Shapiro, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. 2 Vols.
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1953.
6.
R. Courant and K. O. Friedrichs, Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves.
Interscience, New York, 1948.
7. Joao Magueijo, Faster then the Speed of Light: The Story of a Scientific Speculation.
Penguin Books, London. 2003. (In his book Magueijo credits John Moffat, of
Toronto with a prior 1992 paper on VSL theory).
8.
John D. Barrow, and J. Magueijo, Phys. Rev. Lett. B 443, 104-110, 1998.
9. John D. Barrow, Variations of alpha in
space and time. Phys. Rev. D. 043515,
15Aug. 2002.
10. Donam Youm, Variable–speed-of-light
cosmology and second law of thermodynamics. Physical
Review D., 66, 043506, 15 Aug.
2002.
11. Power, Bernard A., Unification of Forces
and Particle Production at an Oblique Radiation Shock Front. Contr. Paper N0. 462. American
Association for the Advancement of
Science, Ann. Meeting, Washington,
D.C., Jan 1982.
12.
----------------------, Baryon Mass-ratios and Degrees of Freedom in a
Compressible Radiation Flow. Contr. Paper No. 505. American Association
for the Advancement of Science, Annual Meeting, Detroit, May 1983.
13. ------------------------ Il Meccanismo
di Formazione dell’Immagine dela Sindon di Torino, Collegamento pro Sindone, Roma, Maggio-Giugno, pp 13-28, 1997.
14. ------------------------,
Caratterizzazione di una Lunghezza d’Onda per la Radiazione che Potrebe aver
Creato I’Immagine Della Sindone di Torino. Collegamento
pro Sindone, Roma. Novembre-Decembre, pp. 26-36, 1999.
15. -----------------------, An Unexpected
Consequence of Radiation Theories of Image Formation for the Shroud of Turin. Proc. Worldwide Congress Sindone 2000, Orvieto, Italy, Aug. 27-29, 2000.
16. -----------------------, Image Formation on the Holy Shroud of Turin by Attenuation of Radiation in Air. Collegamento pro Sindone website (www.shroud.it/) March 2002.
17. -----------------------, Summary of a Universal Physics, Dorval, Quebec, 1992. To be revised
and reprinted in a future Update.
18. Compressible Flow and Special Relativity Compared:
1. Special
Relativity ( Uniform Motion)
The theory requires a constant speed of light c and is restricted to uniform motions.
It is based on the physically contradictory proposition that the square of the speed of light c^{2} in a coordinate system which is not moving must be equivalent to c^{2} – V^{2}.in another system which is moving at a uniform velocity V. That is to say, that
c^{2} –V^{2} = c^{2}
Then, since the equation is algebraically unequal, it is restated with a correction parameter as
(c^{2} – V^{2}) = c^{2}
Which, upon solving for the parameter , yields = [1 – (V/c_{o})^{2} ]^{-1/2} , the Fitzgerald/Lorentz/Einstein contraction factor which corrects for the contraction in the length of moving bodes and for the time dilation of moving atomic clocks,.
The length contraction, given by l = l’, is not directly observable; it must be supported experimentally by the absence of any fringe shift in Michelson-Morley type experiments involving uniform relative motion V. In fact, however, small fringe shifts are always observed. Special relativity then rejects these observations declaring them to actually be zero.
An observable time dilation is predicted which is given experimentally in oscillator tests as _{o} = [1 – (V/c_{o})^{2} ]^{-1/2}.
The theory is compatible with the relation for mass and energy E = mc^{2} which, although the theory is restricted to uniform motion, must be verified by using highly accelerated mass particles.
2. Compressible
Flow Yields a Universal Relativity (uniform and non-uniform motion)
The theory of compressible energy flow requires a variable speed of light c. It applies to both uniform and non-uniform motions. It therefore is a universal relativity.
It is based on the self- consistent physical theory of compressible fluid flow, which is verified by a century of experimental results for material fluids. It is here extended to energy flows involving the propagation of electromagnetic wave motions.
The basic equation is a physically verified energy equation
c^{2} = c_{o}^{2} –V^{2}/n
where we now have a static maximum wave speed c_{o} when there is no relative motion V, an actual wave speed c which becomes smaller as the flow speed V increases, and an energy partition parameter n which designates the number of ways the energy of the system is divided.
The length contraction given by l = l’ = l’[ 1 (1/n) (V/c_{o}^{2}]^{-1/2} where = c_{o}/c, is predicted is verified and observed via a fringe shift given by = 2l (V/c_{o})/n, where n is the energy partition parameter. For Michelson- Morley type experiment with n = 9 the predicted fringe shifts are about one ninth of the classically predicted shifts for an orbital motion V of 30 km’s, and these are always experimentally observed.
The time dilation is predicted by _{o} = [1 – (1/n)(V/c_{o})^{2} ]^{-1/2 }.This predicted time dilation is always verified in oscillator tests provided an appropriate value for n from 1 to 9 is used.
The mass energy relationship E = mc^{2} automatically arises from compressible theory when n = 1.
For unsteady motions, the relations in universal relativity become first order in the correction ratio (V/c_{o}). We have c/c_{o} = 1/ = 1- (1/n) (V/c_{o}) for length contraction ( fringe shift). For time dilation, we have c/c_{o} = _{o} = 1 – (1/n)(V/c_{o}) via oscillator frequency change. For appropriate values of n these relations are verified by the observations..
While for material gases the energy partition parameter n can often be selected from theoretical knowledge of molecular motions (translation, rotation and vibration), for electromagnetic applications its value in each case must at present be determined from experiment. For Michelson-Morley type experiments n = 9,
For highly accelerated motions, n = 1 and the contraction factors of the two theories are then identical.
Conclusions
Special relativity is internally contradictory and is restricted to uniform motions. It predicts a length contraction which requires a zero fringe shift which is never observed so that it must reject the actual fringe shift observations. It predicts a time dilation which has to date only been verified in non-uniform motions. It is compatible with the mass/energy relation E = m c^{2 } and this is verified only in strongly non-uniform motions.
Compressible flow relativity is physically based and self-consistent . It yields a universal relativity for both steady and unsteady motions. It accepts all the observations, both for length contraction and time dilation, and is verified by them.
Details on the full theory are available at www.energycompressibility.info